Environmental conditions, irregular or improper nutrition, inactive or, on the contrary, too intense lifestyle often lead to the loss of nutrients and trace elements. And people need to replenish them from external sources. Some of the vitamins and minerals are found in food, but this is still not enough. And that is when we need special supplements. They can contain one element to replenish it in the body, or they can be multicomponent, affecting our health in a complex way. In order for supplements to benefit us and be well absorbed, it is necessary to adhere to some rules.
Advantages and benefits of vitamin complexes
Vitamins manufacturers offer vitamin complexes that include several vitamins and minerals. This type of supplement is an objective solution to the problem of nutrient deficiency in the body. Multivitamin nutritional supplements contain vitamins and minerals that complement each other, that is, are better absorbed with a certain combination.
Each person can choose the right complex according to their needs and for a specific period of life:
- pregnancy and lactation;
- seasonal beriberi;
- periods of increased mental stress;
- retirement age;
- young age.
Before you buy and take a complex of vitamins, you need to decide on the purpose of taking them, as well as take tests for a deficiency of these vitamins in your body. There are some significant reasons to start taking a multivitamin complex, such as diet, rehabilitation after surgery or injury. Before buying, pay attention to the composition, concentration and compatibility of vitamins and minerals, as well as the presence of special enzymes that help absorb these vitamins.
Range of vitamins
All vitamins are divided into 2 groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folates. They need to be taken daily, as they do not accumulate in the body and are excreted from it after a few days.
Vitamin В1 (thiamine) is necessary for normal metabolism, functioning of the heart system, muscles, nervous system and energy production.
Vitamin В2 (riboflavin) supports normal functioning of cells, tissue respiration, metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It is called the “beauty vitamin” due to its properties to influence the condition of the skin and hair.
Ниацин (nicotinic acid) is involved in many redox reactions, the formation of enzymes and the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates in living cells.
Vitamin В9 (folates) is essential for the growth and development of the circulatory and immune systems, plays a role in wound healing and neural tube formation in the fetus.
Vitamin В6 is needed for normal amino acid metabolism, the creation of red blood cells, the synthesis of biological compounds, and the normal functioning of the central nervous system.
Vitamin С is one of the most powerful natural antioxidants, responsible for the growth and repair of muscles, blood vessels, teeth and gums.
Vitamin В12 (cyanocobalamin) is necessary for the formation of red blood cells, the development of neurons and DNA synthesis. A lack of B12 can lead to anemia, numbness in the limbs, and loss of balance.
Fat-soluble vitamins are A, K, D and E. They are able to dissolve in vegetable and animal fats and have the ability to accumulate in the body.
Vitamin D is a trace element necessary to maintain immunity of children and adults, provides homeostasis of phosphorus and calcium, stimulates the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides, and is involved in blood coagulation.
Vitamin А (retinol) maintains the normal condition of the skin and mucous membranes, promotes moisturizing of the eyes, and ensures normal iron metabolism.
Vitamin Е helps protect cells from oxidative stress, has a beneficial effect on peripheral circulation, is necessary for tissue regeneration, promotes the absorption of vitamin A.
Vitamin К contributes to normal blood clotting, is necessary for the formation of bone tissue, regulates blood sugar levels, and reduces mortality from coronary heart disease.
How vitamins are made
There are several ways to obtain supplements used by vitamin manufacturers:
— Extraction with water and steam, alcohol and water. Extraction is a technique for obtaining components from solutions or solids using special extractants (solvents). The raw material is treated with water vapor, where the volatile particles are mixed with vapor particles and condense on the walls in the form of oil. When alcohol is added to the raw material, useful substances that do not dissolve are collected and dried.
— Cold or hot pressing. In the first case, oils are extracted from citrus peel using a press without heating. In the case of hot pressing, the original product is heated to 160-200 degrees Celsius, and then pressed.
— Solvent extraction. The original material (most often tender plants) is treated with a hydrocarbon solution and then with a special solvent to separate the oils from the plant fibers. What remains is evaporated and the operation is performed again.
— Cryogenic grinding. Raw materials are cooled with nitrogen to an ultra-low temperature, most often -196 degrees Celsius, and then grinded into dust.
— Supercritical extraction. Prepared raw materials are in contact with a certain extractant at a temperature and pressure above the critical point.
Natural and synthetic vitamins
Natural vitamins are a whole complex where molecules are connected with other useful substances. These vitamins reach the site of impact, become active and are absorbed by the body only with other organic substances: macronutrients, sugars, organic acids and flavonoids. People get natural vitamins naturally with food, such as fruits, vegetables, and fish. Natural elements are quickly absorbed into the blood, and in case of a surplus, they are carefully removed through the kidneys and large intestine.
Synthetic vitamins are multivitamin complexes that are artificially synthesized in special laboratory conditions. Vitamins manufacturers create them in such a way that the chemical compounds are as close as possible in formula to the natural vitamins. These vitamins are GMO, gluten and soy free, and are not bound to bioactive compounds like natural vitamins. They should be taken by those people who, for one reason or another, cannot get the substance naturally. Storage conditions for synthetic vitamins are minimal, since environmental factors do not have the same effect on them as they do on vegetables and fruits.
So which vitamins to choose
The choice of vitamin supplements and complexes is an individual decision. Despite the fact that natural vitamins are absorbed into the blood faster and better, there are times when synthetic supplements are indispensable. Taking vitamins allows you to achieve several goals: improve the state of health, skin and hair, speed up the recovery process after an illness, injury or operation, help eliminate vitamin deficiency, improve the functioning of the cardiovascular, nervous and other systems.
Studies have shown that synthetic nutritional supplements cannot fully replace natural sources of nutrients. Therefore, if you decide to get by with only natural vitamins, first of all, review your diet. Throughout the day, you should eat fruits and vegetables, preferably those that have recently been harvested from the garden. If they have already lain down for some time, the amount of useful substances in them will be lower. If you eat foods rich in vitamin E, A and D, you should take them at the same time as heavy cream, mousse, carrot juice and other emulsified fats. In order for vitamins to be well absorbed, it is necessary to additionally take minerals, such as fluorine, calcium, potassium and iodine.